The Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity in Nepal: Current Knowledge, Lacunae, and Opportunities


Nepal, characterized by extreme altitudinal variations and diverse topography, is a biodiversity hotspot with a significant portion of its land in protected areas. The region, including the Himalayas, is exceptionally susceptible to climate change due to abrupt ecological transitions. The ecosystem services provided by this area are crucial for millions of people. This study reviews existing literature on past, present, and projected climatic changes in Nepal and their impact on ecological diversity. The research reveals a scarcity of studies focusing on organisms but more attention on species and communities. Shifts in species ranges and alterations in community composition are commonly observed or predicted. However, there is a notable gap in understanding the comprehensive ecological impacts of changing climate on the Himalayan biota, emphasizing the need for empirical research at various biological levels to inform effective adaptation strategies in the face of climate change. Nepal's unique physiographic and climatic gradients make it a valuable model for studying climate change effects in mountainous and biodiverse regions.


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