What is Disaster ?
A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
What is mean by Hazard ?
A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
What is mean by vulnerability ?
The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.
What is Risk ?
The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environmental damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions. Conventionally risk is expressed by the notation Risk = 'Hazards' x 'Vulnerability'. Some disciplines also include the concept of exposure to refer particularly to the physical aspects of vulnerability. A disaster is a function of the risk process. It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk.
What is mean by resilience/resilient ?
The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. It is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures.
Are there any action plan for disaster risk reduction in Nepal ?
Yes, we have National Action Plan for Disaster Management.
How many agencies are involved on Disaster Management in Nepal ?
MoHA, MoHP, MoPPC, MoWE and Several government agencies are involved in disaster risk reduction works in close cooperation with various international agencies such as: JICA, ADRC, ADPC, UNDP, WHO, UNISDR, UNOCHA, UNDAC, USAID/OFDA, UMN, CARE, WFP, SCF alliance, GTZ, LWF, Action Aid Nepal, ADRA, etc. Besides, various other professional and non-governmental organizations like NRCS, providing highly valuable support at the time of natural disasters. Some other professional and non-governmental organizations of Nepal like DWIDP, DP-NET NSET, NCDM, NGS, NLSS, NDMF, and few others have contributed significantly by conducting research and capacity building programmes to enhance public awareness in the country.
What are the policies, plans and legal instruments to disaster management in Nepal ?
Nepal has enacted Natural Calamity (Relief) Act in 1982, which is amended thrice. Being enacted earlier it has focused basically on the relief/ rescue activities and opts to be amended in the field of comprehensive disaster risk management in general and preparedness and mitigation in particular.
Major Legal instruments for DRR are as follows:
- Three Years Interim Plan's Approach Paper 2005-2008
- National Action Plan 1996 (Amendment)
- Disaster Victim Relief Distribution Norms
- Natural Calamity Relief Act, 1982
Which is the Nodal agency/focal point on disaster management in Nepal ?
The Ministry of Home Affairs is the Nodal agency/focal point on disaster management in Nepal.
What are the major disasters frequently occurred in Nepal ?
Flood, Landslide, Earthquake, Epidemic, Fire, Drought, Others (hailstorm, windstorm, thunderbolt, glacier lake outburst floods and cold as well as hot wave are other forms)
Are there any best practices for disaster risk reduction in Nepal ?
Yes, we have, they are ...
- Community based disaster management
- Early Warning Introduced in Tsho Rolpa Glacier Lake Outburst Flood
- Kathamndu Valley Earthquake Risk Management Project (KVERMP)
- Hospital Vulnerability Reduction
- Source: UN/ISDR, MoH
- Action Aid Nepal
- Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) Nepal
- Armed Police Force (Disaster Management Cell)
- Association for Rural Women Upliftment (RWUA)
- Bagmati Lakhandehi Affected Sociesty Nepal
- CARE Nepal
- Caritas Nepal
- CDM Nepal
- Center for Disaster Management Studies
- Center for Disaster Studies
- Center for Environment and Disaster Management (CEDIM)
- Center for International Studies and Cooperation
- Center of Resilient Development (CORD)
- Community Development Forum
- Dan Church Aid
- Department of Hydrology and Meteorology
- Department of Mines and Geology
- Department of soil Conservation and Water shade Management
- Department of Urban Development and Building Construction
- Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention
- Development Project Service Centre (DEPROSC)-Nepal
- Disaster Management Committee (17 Ward)
- Disaster Management Federation Nepal
- Focus ED Nepal
- Food for Health
- Forum For Awareness and Youth Activity (FAYA) Nepal
- Forum for Public Awareness and Development (FOPAD), Sindhuli
- Friends Service Council Nepal (FSCN)
- Handicap International
- Help Age International Nepal
- Jagaran Media Center
- Jagriti Child and Youth Concern Nepal ( JYCN)
- Janakai Mahila Awareness Society ( JWAS)
- Kathmandu Metropolitan City Office
- Kirtipur Volunteer Society
- Koshi Victim Society
- Mercy Corps
- Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
- Ministry of Education/ Curriculum Development Center
- Ministry of Environment
- Ministry of Health and Population
- Ministry of Home Affairs (Disaster Management Section)
- Ministry of Local Development
- Ministry of Physical Planning and Works
- Ministry of Science and Technology
- Ministry of Water Resources
- Mission East
- National Planning Commission
- National Disaster Risk Reduction Center (NDRRC)
- National Institution for Disaster Survivors (NIDS)
- National Society for Earthquake Technology (NSET)
- Natural Disaster Management Forum, Nepal (NDMF)
- Nepal Army (Disaster Cell)
- Nepal Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM)
- Nepal Christian Relief Services (NCRS)
- Nepal Environment and Education Development Society (NEEDS Kanchanpur)
- Nepal Geological Society
- Nepal GIS Society
- Nepal Landslide Society
- Nepal National Social Welfare Association
- Nepal Police (Operation Section)
- Nepal Red Cross Society
- Nepal Scouts National Headquarter
- OCCED, Kanchanpur
- OXFAM GB Nepal
- PEACEWIN Bajura
- Practical Action
- Ratauli Yuwa Club
- RRN ( Rural Reconstruction Nepal)
- Rural Community Development Service Council (RCDSC)
- Rural Service Society (RSS)
- Save the Children
- School for Shelter and Environment (SSE)
- Social Development & Research Center Janakpur
- Social Service Center
- Society for Community Development Nepal (SOCOD) Nepal
- South Asia Partnership Nepal
- Terre des hummes
- The Lutheran World Federation Nepal (LWF Nepal)
- Trust Nepal
- UN OCHA
- United Mission to Nepal
- United nation Development Program (UNDP)
- Women and Children Development Forum (WCDF)
- Women Children and Environment Center (WOCHEND)
- World Health Organization
- World Vision International Nepal
DISASTER RELATED LINKS