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Fact and Figures of Nepal

Background

In 1951, the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. A Maoist insurgency, launched in 1996, has gained traction and is threatening to bring down the regime. In 2001, the Crown Prince massacred ten members of the royal family, including the king and queen, and then took his own life. In October 2002, the new king dismissed the prime minister and his cabinet for "incompetence" after they dissolved the parliament and were subsequently unable to hold elections because of the ongoing insurgency. The country is now governed by the king and his appointed cabinet, which has negotiated a cease-fire with the Maoist insurgents, until elections can be held at some unspecified future date.

Geographical description of Nepal :

  • Location:

    Southern Asia, between China and India

  • Geographic coordinates:

    28 00 N, 84 00 E

  • Map references:

    Asia

  • Area:

    Total: 147,181 sq km
    Country comparison to the world: 93
    Land: 143,351 sq km
    Water: 3,830 sq km

  • Area - comparative:

    Slightly larger than Arkansas

  • Land boundaries:

    Total: 2,926 km
    Border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

  • Coastline:

    0 km (landlocked)

  • Maritime claims:

    none (landlocked)

  • Climate:

    Varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

  • Terrain:

    Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

  • Elevation extremes:

    Lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
    Highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m

  • Natural resources:

    Quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

  • Land use:

    Arable land: 16.07%
    Permanent crops: 0.85%
    Other: 83.08% (2005)

  • Irrigated land:

    11,700 sq km (2003)

  • Total renewable water resources:

    210.2 cu km (1999)

  • Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

    Total: 10.18 cu km/yr (3%/1%/96%)
    Per capita: 375 cu m/yr (2000)

  • Natural hazards:

    Severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons

  • Environment - current issues:

    Deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions

  • Environment - international agreements:

    Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

  • Geography - note:

    Landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders with China and India respectively

Data of people living in Nepal :

  • Population:

    29,391,883 (July 2011 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 41

  • Age structure:

    0-14 years: 34.6% (male 5,177,264/female 4,983,864)
    15-64 years: 61.1% (male 8,607,338/female 9,344,537)
    65 years and over: 4.4% (male 597,628/female 681,252) (2011 est.)

  • Median age:

    Total: 21.6 years
    Male: 20.7 years
    Female: 22.5 years (2011 est.)

  • Population growth rate:

    1.596% (2011 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 72

  • Birth rate:

    22.17 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 78

  • Death rate:

    6.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 144

  • Net migration rate:

    0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 61

  • Urbanization:

    Urban population: 19% of total population (2010)
    Rate of urbanization: 4.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

  • Major cities - population:

    KATHMANDU (capital) 990,000 (2009)

  • Sex ratio:

    At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
    Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

  • Infant mortality rate:

    Total: 44.54 deaths/1,000 live births
    Country comparison to the world: 54
    Male: 44.54 deaths/1,000 live births
    Female: 44.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

  • Life expectancy at birth:

    Total population: 66.16 years
    Country comparison to the world: 164
    Male: 64.94 years
    Female: 67.44 years (2011 est.)

  • Total fertility rate:

    2.47 children born/woman (2011 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 85

  • HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

    0.4% (2009 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 78

  • HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

    64,000 (2009 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 52

  • HIV/AIDS - deaths:

    4,700 (2009 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 40

  • Major infectious diseases:

    Degree of risk: high
    Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    Vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2009)

  • Nationality:

    Noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)
    Adjective: Nepalese

  • Ethnic groups:

    Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)

  • Religions:

    Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

  • Languages:

    Nepali (official) 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census)
    NOTE: Many in government and business also speak English (2001 est.)

  • Literacy:

    Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    Total population: 48.6%
    Male: 62.7%
    Female: 34.9% (2001 census)

  • School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

    Total: 9 years
    Male: 10 years
    Female: 8 years (2003)

  • Education expenditures:

    4.6% of GDP (2009)
    Country comparison to the world: 79

Government system in Nepal :

  • Country name:

    Conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
    Conventional short form: Nepal
    Local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
    Local short form: Nepal

  • Government type:

    Federal democratic republic

  • Capital:

    Name: Kathmandu
    Geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
    Time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

  • Administrative divisions:

    14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

  • Independence:

    1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
    Country comparison to the world: 78

  • National holiday:

    Republic Day, 29 May; Democracy Day, 24 April

  • Constitution:

    15 January 2007 (interim Constitution); note - in April 2008, a Constituent Assembly was elected to draft and promulgate a new constitution by May 2010, but the deadline has been extended to May 2011

  • Legal system:

    Based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

  • Suffrage:

    18 years of age; universal

  • Executive branch:

    Chief of state: President Ram Baran YADAV (since 23 July 2008); Vice President Paramananda JHA (since 23 July 2008) head of government: Prime Minister Jhala Nath KHANAL (since 6 February 2011); Deputy Prime Ministers Bharat Mohan ADHIKHARI, Krishna MAHARA, Upendra YADAV
    Cabinet: cabinet was formed in May 2009 by a majority coalition made up of the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist, Nepali Congress, Madhesi People's Rights Forum, Nepal-Democratic, and several smaller parties (For more information visit the elections: president elected by Parliament; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; election last held on 21 July 2008; date of next election NA election results: Ram Baran YADAV elected president by the Constituent Assembly in a second round of voting on 21 July 2008; Ram Baran YADAV 308, Ram Jaja Prasad SINGH 282

  • Legislative branch:

    Unicameral Constituent Assembly (601 seats; 240 members elected by direct popular vote, 335 by proportional representation, and 26 appointed by the Cabinet (Council of Ministers)) elections: last held on 10 April 2008 (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote by party - CPN-M 38%, NC 19%, CPN-UML 18%,Madhesi People's Right Forum 9%, other 11%; seats by party - CPN-M 229, NC 115, CPN-UML 108, Madhesi People's Rights Forum 54, Terai Madhes Democratic Party 21, other smaller parties 74; note - 26 seats filled by the new Cabinet are included in the totals above

  • Judicial branch:

    Supreme Court or Sarbochha Adalat (the president appoints the chief justice on recommendation of the Constitutional Council; the chief justice appoints other judges on the recommendation of the Judicial Council)

  • Political parties and leaders:

    Chure Bhawar Rastriya Ekata Party [Keshav Prasad MAINALI]; Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (inactive); Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist or CPN-ML [C.P. MAINALI]; Communist Party of Nepal-Unified [Raj Singh SHRIS]; Communist Party of Nepal-United [Chandra Dev JOSHI]; Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Jhalanath KHANAL]; Dalit Janajati Party [Vishwendraman PASHWAN]; Federal Democratic National Forum; Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHHADAR]; Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]; Nepal Loktantrik Samajbadi Dal [Upendra GACHCHHADAR]; Nepal Pariwar Dal [Eknath DHAKAL]; Nepal Sadbhavana Party-Anandi Devi [Sarita GIRI]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party or [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]; Nepali Congress or NC [Sushil KOIRALA]; Nepali Janata Dal [Harish Chandra SHA]; Newa Rastriya Party [Keshav Man SHAKYA]; Rastriya Janamorcha [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]; Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]; Rastriya Janashakti Party or RJP [Surya Bahadur THAPA]; Rastriya Prajantantra Party [Pashupati Shumsher RANA]; Rastriya Prajantantra Party Nepal [Kamal THAPA]; Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]; Samajbadi Prajatantrik Janata Party Nepal [Prem Bahadur SINGH]; Terai Madhes Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]; Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA]

  • Political pressure groups and leaders:

    Other: several small armed Madhesi groups along the southern border with India; a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy for individual ethnic groups

  • International organization participation:

    ADB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

  • Diplomatic representation in the US:

    Chief of mission: Ambassador Shankar Prasad SHARMA
    chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
    consulate(s) general: New York

  • Diplomatic representation from the US:

    chief of mission: Ambassador Scott H. DELISI
    embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [977] (1) 400-7200
    FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272

  • Flag description:

    red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
    NOTE: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square

  • National anthem:

    Name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
    Lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
    Note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king

Economical condition of Nepal :

  • Economy - overview:

    Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with almost one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for three-fourths of the population and accounting for about one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of feasible capacity, but political instability hampers foreign investment. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, civil strife and labor unrest, and its susceptibility to natural disaster.

  • GDP (purchasing power parity):

    $35.31 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    $34.11 billion (2009 est.)
    $32.58 billion (2008 est.)
    Note: Data are in 2010 US dollars

  • GDP (official exchange rate):

    $15.11 billion (2010 est.)

  • GDP - real growth rate:

    3.5% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    4.7% (2009 est.)
    5.3% (2008 est.)

  • Independence:

    1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
    Country comparison to the world: 78

  • GDP - per capita (PPP):

    $1,200 (2010 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 204
    $1,200 (2009 est.)
    $1,200 (2008 est.)
    Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

  • GDP - composition by sector:

    Agriculture: 33%
    Industry: 15%
    Services: 52% (FY09 est.)

  • Labor force:

    18 million
    Country comparison to the world: 32
    Note: severe lack of skilled labor (2009 est.)

  • Labor force - by occupation:

    Agriculture: 75%
    Industry: 7%
    Services: 18% (2010 est.)

  • Unemployment Rate:

    46% (2008 est.)
    Country comparison to the world : 191
    42% (2004 est.)

  • Population below poverty line:

    24.7% (2008)

  • Household income or consumption by percentage share:

    lowest 10%: NA
    Highest 10%: 40.6% (2008)

  • Distribution of family income - Gini index:

    47.2 (2008)
    Country comparison to the world:32
    36.7 (1996)

  • Budget:

    Revenues: $3 billion Expenditures: $4.6 billion (FY10)

  • Inflation rate (consumer prices):

    8.6% (September 2010 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 190
    13.2% (September 2009 est.)

  • Central bank discount rate:

    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    Country comparison to the world: 64
    6.5% (31 December 2009)

  • Commercial bank prime lending rate:

    8% (31 December 2009 est.) Country comparison to the world: 115 8% (31 December 2008 est.)

  • Stock of narrow money:

    $3.03 billion (July 2010)
    Country comparison to the world: 110
    $2.712 billion (July 2009)

  • Stock of broad money:

    $9 billion (July 2010)
    Country comparison to the world: 105
    $7.923 billion (July 2009)

  • Stock of domestic credit:

    $6.11 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 108
    $5.556 billion (31 December 2008)

  • Market value of publicly traded shares:

    $5.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 79
    $5.485 billion (31 December 2009)
    $4.894 billion (31 December 2008)

  • Agriculture - products:

    pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat

  • Industries:

    tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production

  • Industrial production growth rate:

    1.8% (FY08)
    Country comparison to the world: 133

  • Electricity - production:

    2.6 billion kWh (2009 est.) Country comparison to the world: 129

  • Electricity - consumption:

    2.243 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 132

  • Electricity - exports:

    0 kWh (2010 est.)

  • Electricity - imports:

    213 million kWh (2008 est.)

  • Oil - production:

    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 119

  • Oil - consumption:

    18,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) Country comparison to the world: 130

  • Oil - exports:

    0 bbl/day (2010 est.) Country comparison to the world: 193

  • Oil - imports:

    16,920 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Country comparison to the world: 119

  • Oil - proved reserves:

    0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172

  • Natural gas - production:

    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168

  • Natural gas - consumption:

    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206

  • Natural gas - exports:

    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150

  • Natural gas - imports:

    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world:99

  • Natural gas - proved reserves:

    0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173

  • Current account balance:

    $-449 million (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $537 million (2009)

  • Exports:

    $849 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world:156
    $907 million (2008)

  • Exports - commodities:

    clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, pashima, jute goods

  • Exports - partners:

    India 65.6%, US 8%, Bangladesh 6.04%, Germany 5% (2009)

  • Imports:

    $5.26 billion (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $4.1 billion (2008)

  • Imports - commodities:

    petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine

  • Imports - partners:

    India 57%, China 13% (2009)

  • Debt - external:

    $4.5 billion (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $3.285 billion (2008)

  • Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

    NA

  • Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

  • Exchange rates:

    Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
    72.56 (2010)
    77.44 (2009)
    65.21 (2008)
    70.35 (2007)
    72.446 (2006)

Communication system in Nepal :

  • Telephones - main lines in use:

    820,500 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 86

  • Telephones - mobile cellular:

    7.618 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 77

  • Telephone system:

    General assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
    Domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone service subscribership base only about 30 per 100 persons
    International: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2008)

  • Broadcast media:

    State operates 2 television stations as well as national and regional radio stations; more than 60 independent radio stations and a small number of independent television stations (2007)

  • Internet country code:

    .np

  • Internet hosts:

    43,928 (2010)
    Country comparison to the world: 91

  • Internet users:

    577,800 (2009)
    Country comparison to the world: 116

Transportation system in Nepal :

  • Airports:

    47 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 93

  • Airports - with paved runways:

    Total: 11
    Over 3,047 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    Under 914 m: 1 (2010)

  • Airports - with unpaved runways:

    Total: 36
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    Under 914 m: 31 (2010)

  • Railways:

    Total: 59 km
    Country comparison to the world: 130
    Narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2008)

  • Roadways:

    Total: 17,282 km
    Country comparison to the world: 118
    Paved: 10,142 km
    Unpaved: 7,140 km (2007)

Military power of Nepal :

  • Military branches:

    Nepal Army (2010)

  • Military service age and obligation:

    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for military training; no conscription (2011)

  • Manpower available for military service:

    Males age 16-49: 6,941,152
    Females age 16-49: 7,618,397 (2010 est.)

  • Manpower fit for military service:

    Males age 16-49: 5,260,878
    Females age 16-49: 5,947,512 (2010 est.)

  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

    Male: 380,172
    Female: 367,103 (2010 est.)

  • Military expenditures:

    1.6% of GDP (2006)
    Country comparison to the world: 94

Transnational Issues :

  • Disputes - international:

    Joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities; approximately 106,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined in refugee camps in southeastern Nepal since 1990

  • Refugees and internally displaced persons:

    Refugees (country of origin): 107,803 (Bhutan); 20,153 (Tibet/China) IDPs: 50,000-70,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; displacement spread across the country) (2007)

  • Illicit drugs:

    Illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West

Based on "The Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook".

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